Tile Dictionary

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Abrasion Resistance : A measure of the ability of a tile to withstand wear by friction.
Absorption : The penetration of water into the particles of a tile.
Antiskid-slip resistance : Glazed ceramic tiles whose surface has been treated with corundum or an abrasive grit to increase its resistance substantially. Normally, the more slip resistant a tile is , the more difficult it is to clean.
Bicottura Tiles (Double-Fired) : Glazed tiles produced by an initial firing of the shaped, raw materials to produce a hard tile body or bisque and then a re-firing of the bisque once the glaze or decoration has been applied.
Bisquit or Bisque : The clay body with no glaze applied. The body under the glaze of the tile (i.e., the body).
Breaking strength : The ability of a material to resist breaking or rupture from a tension force.
Brush Hammered : An uneven surface to the tile.
Bull-Nose Tiles : Trim tiles featuring one rounded edge used to finish wall installations or trim outside corners.
Ceramic Tile : A ceramic surfacing unit, usually relatively thin, composed of a clay body or a body composed of a mixture of ceramic materials, and having a glazed or unglazed surface. Ceramic tiles are used principally for decorative effects and sanitary purposes.
Chemical resistance : The ability of a material to resist breaking or rupture from a tension force.
Clay : Earth which has been processed in the course of milleniums resulting from the distintegration of volcanic rocks.
Coefficient resistance : Measurement that shows the degree of slip resistance that a floor has.
Corundum : An abrasive or grit added to a tile glaze in order to increase tile slip-resistance.
Cotto : A natural red clay fired tile.
Crazing : A fine hair-line cracking which sometimes appears on the glazed surface of a tile caused by tensile stress between the tile body and the glaze. May also be produced intentionally for decorative effect.
Cushioned Edges : Rounded corners rather than square.
Dust-Pressed Tiles : Raw materials are dried and pressed into shape before firing. The powder-like condition of clay that is die-stamped to the desired shape.
Earthenware : Non vitreous, ceramic whiteware, glazed or unglazed.
Efflorescence : The residue deposited on the surface of a material by the crystallization of soluble salts.
Expansion Joints : A joint in an installation sometimes filled with an elastic material, which will permit expansion, contraction or other movement without the development of excessive stresses or damage to the installation and to the tiled floor.
Fast firing (single , double) : Firing process of the ceramic raw material completed in less than two hours.
Frit : The raw material used for producing the glaze.
Frost-Proof Tiles : The qualification of a tile to withstand temperatures of below Zero (0) centigrade.
Glazing : Processing phase during which the support is covered with a layer of very fine particles which form the glossy and decorated surface of the tile.
Grout : The material used in installations to fill the joints between tiles.
Impact resistance : Ability of ceramic tile to resist breakage - either throughout the body or as surface chipping - as the result of a heavy blow.
Impervious Stoneware Tiles (Porcelain) : Also known as China, these are unglazed tiles composed of raw materials which produce a non-porous bisque of high mechanical strength.
Inserts : Small, sometimes decorative tiles, used in combination with larger or plain tiles to create patterns.
Jolly Tiles (Mitered Tiles) : Tiles mitered along one or two edges used in corner and counter edge installation.
Linear thermal expansion : The change in the dimensions of a given material as a result of changes in temperature.
Lippage : in finished installation, the condition where one edge of a ceramic tiles or stone is higher than and adjacent tile. May be unavoidable even for tiles that are within the tolerances of dimensional standards.
Listellos : Glazed color trim and decorative accessories, usually for wall tile.
Lug(s) : Small button-like protuberances on the underside of many Italian produced tiles to facilitate adhesion.
Matt Finish : A glazed surface with very little shine. Sometimes called Satin.
Mohs scale -scratch hardness : scale used to express the measure of a material?s hardness from moh?s 1(hardness to talc) to 10(diamond).
Moisture expansion : change in dimension a porous tile may undergo as a result of moisture absorption, analogous to change produced by temperature increase.
Monocottura Tiles (Single-Fired) : Glazed tiles produced by the single-fired method in which the raw tile body and glaze undergo a single pass through the kiln. Also called Monoporosa.
Mortar : Tile setting material.
P.E.I. : Porcelain Enamel Institute , responsible for research, testing, and analysis of ceramic materials.
Pencils : Thin, glazed trim, usually 3/8" by 6" in length. Comes in decorative colors.
Picket : A picket shaped tile which may be used alone or as a border for squares creating a more intricate pattern.
Pillowed Edges : Same as cushioned edges. Softly turned rather than square edge.
Polished : A clay or marble tile that has a shine due to a friction type of sanding.
Quarry Tile : A natural clay tile.
Red Body Clay (Bisque) : A natural clay that is fired for strength. The color is brown in its raw state, but turns red under heat.
Red Stoneware Tiles : Tiles composed of typically Italian raw materials which produce a red, vitrified tile body suitable for indoor or outdoor use. Generally unglazed.
Ribbed Finish : A ridged or ribbed tile face which provides a slip resistant surface.
Rustic Finish : A rough or uneven tile surface designed for a non-mechanical or artisan effect.
Sealer : Clear coatings sometimes applied to unglazed tile floors to protect the surface from grease spills or add luster to a surface.
Silk-Screening : Glazing phase in which the glaze is enriched with different decorative patterns.
Single-Fired : A system called Monocottura where the glazed and clay bisque is fired at one time.
Slip-Resistant Tiles : Tiles treated to prevent slipping, particularly for commercial showers or swimming pools. An abrasive grit is often added to the surface of glazed tiles.
Spacers : Small plastic or wood pieces used during installation to maintain even joint wrath between tiles.
Terracotta : Traditional Italian raw material used to produce unglazed red body tiles generally extruded and 1/2" thick or more. Surfaces may be rustic or smooth and waxed for lustre. Red clay.
Thick-Bed : Method of installation using cement based mortar applied in a minimum thickness of 3/4" to create the backing surface on which tiles will be installed.
Thin-Set : Alternative to thick-bed installation, using a bond-coating less than 1/8" thick. Requires a level and sound surface for success.
Trim Tiles : Designed to meet requirements of specific applications.
Unglazed Tiles : Tiles left untreated after firing. Highly durable.
Veined : A design that imitates the coloring in marble.
White Body Clay : The clay compound that is formed by using only white clays.

Homes made Beautiful

The Rationale

Tiles, as a lifestyle product, are highly visible. Every person wants to reflect taste in the selection of dcor for his/her house. We wanted to address these concerns evinced by consumers. And so we coined.

Homes made Beautiful

Bell promises beauty, it promises hope, it promises a home which is built from the heart after carefully considering all internal & external elements.

It builds aspiration, hope, expectations, beauty in its homes. It breathes life into corner of your living space.

Comparison of Flooring Material

Attributes Ceramic Tiles Mosaic Tiles Marble, Kota, Cuddapa Granite PVS Tiles, PVC Carpets Woollen Carpets
Stain Stain free Will stain Will stain Stain free Will stain Will stain
Heat/Fire Resistance No effect Turns black Turns black No effect Highly effected Will catch fire.
Water Resistance Water Proof Absorbs water Absorbs Water Low effect Slightly effected Absorbs water
Acid/Alkali resistance No effect Highly effected Highly effected Low effect Highly effected Highly effected
Colours Wide range Wide range Limited natural range Limited natural range Limited range Wide range
Designs Wide range Wide range Limited natural range Limited natural range Wide range Wide range
Printing Long lasting Not possible Not possible Not possible Possible but not lasting Possible
Bending strength kg/cm 400 100 220 270 NA NA
Weight in kg /sq. mtr. 16 48 70 40 Light Light
Porosity Non porous Porous Porous Porous Non porous Porous
Echo Proof Low High Low Low Low
Bacteria Free High effect High effect Free Free High effect
Performance in 10 or more years As good as new Scratches appear and stained look Stained look and gets rough As good as new Needs replacement after 4 - 5 years Needs to be replaced
Thermal insulation Good insulator Bad insulator Bad insulator Bad insulator Good insulator Medium
Smell Free Medium Medium Free Free  
Maintenance Free Required Required Free Required Required
Cost Medium Low Average High Medium Medium
Fixing charges Normal Low High High Very high Nil
Fixing ease & time Easy 24 hours Difficult 15 days Difficult 30 days Difficult 45 days Easy 12 hours Easy 1 hour
Reflection of light High Low Marble Med. Kota Low Low Low NA
Frictional resistance Medium Good Medium Low Medium NA

The potentiality of the ceramic tiles over vitrified tiles can be understood by the following table. The technical specifications of vitrified tiles are given, in which some of the specifications are also fulfilled by the ceramic tiles, which is also shown in the following table:


Sr. Characteristics Vitrified Tile Bell Floor Tiles Bell Wall Tiles
    EN176 BI, , IS13756, ISO13006 BIa Bell norms Bell norms
A  Dimension & Surface Quality
1 Deviation in length +/- 0.6% Max. +/- 0.4% Max. +/- 0.3%
2 Deviation in thickness +/-5% Max. +/- 0.5% Max. +/- 0.3mm
3 Rectangularity +/- 0.6% Max. +/- 0.4% Max. +/- 0.1%
4 Surface flatness (warpage) +/- 0.5% Max. +/- 0.4mm Max + 0.5mm
5 Surface quality Min.95% free from defects > 95% >95%
B  Physical Properties
1 Water absorption (%) <0.5% 3% to 6% 10% to 20%
2 Bending strength (N/sq.mm) >=27 Avg. 25.506 N/mm2 AVG. 15.7N/mm2
3 Scratch hardness (Mohs) >= 3 Minimum 6 Minimum 7 Min 3
4 Resistance to surface abrasion To be specified by mfr. Group V -
5 Crazing resistance Required Passes 2 cycles at 7.5kgs/cm2 steam pressure Passes 2 cycles at 7.5kgs/cm2 steam pressure
C  Chemical Properties
1 Resistance to household chemicals Required Minimum class A Minimum class B
D  Thermal Properties
1 Thermal shock resistance No damage Resistance to 10 cycles Resistance to 10 cycles
2 Thermal expansion Max 9x10-6 K-1 at 100C Max. 9E-06 at 100 c Max. 9X10-6 k-1 At 100 c.

As per the above table, the third column shows the technical specification of vitrified tiles as per EN176 BI, IS13756, ISO13006 BIa. 4th and 5th column shows the technical specifications of ceramic tiles for floor and wall respectively, which are followed by Orient Bell Limited.

As ceramic tiles rates are cost effective with compared to vitrified tiles, ceramic tiles mostly achieve many technical specifications of the vitrified tiles that we can easily understand from the table shown above. For example, in case of surface quality, dimension, deviation in thickness, rectangularly, scratch resistance (Group V), crazing resistance, thermal shock resistance, co-efficient of liner expansion, resistance to household chemicals, bending strength the ceramic tiles is mostly same in comparison to vitrified tiles.

Twelve reasons to buy Bell ceramic tiles

• Can be laid any where in the house.
• Can be laid on any flooring
• No need to polish
• Easy to lay, ready for use in just 48 hours
• Non-Slippery, matt finish options available.
• Wider choice of designs and colours.
• Stronger than marble.
• Maintenance free.
• Scratch & Stain resistance.
• Does not accumulate dust & is easy to clean.
• Resistant to acid and alkalis.
• Resistant to temperature changes.

Maintaining your tiles

Initial Cleaning

Upon completion of tile lying, all traces of cement have to be removed in order to bring out the characteristic colours of the tiles.

This cleaning still comes within the tiles layers' work & represents the end of a well executed tiling job.

The cement is not yet set immediately after jointing. At this stage, remains of mortar and grout can still be wiped out with a piece of wet sponge or absorbed with soft wood saw dust and swept away.

Hard wood sawdust is unsuitable, since the tanning material contained in it may leave behind brown discolouration in the joints, especially in the joints.

Wall tiles are usually washed at right angles to the direction of joints and then dried with a lint free cloth. Tiles having matted or somewhat rough surface requires especially careful cleaning after the jointing procedure.

In order to prevent the cement residue from hardening on the surface of the tile and adhering to the surface in form of cement haze, or veil, the tile must be washed with adequate amount of water as soon as possible.

Subsequent acidic treatment can damage the glaze due to the aggressiveness of certain acidic agents.

Hardened cement residue can only be removed on chemical basis. Special acidic agents, the so-called cement haze removers, dissolve them. Unconsumed acid and reaction products should be carefully removed with water.

Otherwise, there is danger of silicic acid (developed out of cement during the dissolution process) drying on the tile and turning in to a grey film which cannot be removed.

For some type of tiles melting on a crystal glaze attains the desired rustic colouring. In this case, the surface is characteristically somewhat rough. Please be sure to wash off such tiles with sufficient water as soon as possible after joining, so that the cement does not get a chance to harden.

Here also, subsequent acidic treatment could lead to problem due to aggressive of the acid medium. Naturally high gloss glazed surface must be treated with more care than mat or unglazed tiles.

Regular Cleaning

Tile work is only rarely so dirty, that it requires the use of harsh media. Normally all-purpose house cleaners are sufficient and even a simple dish washing agent will do.

Soft soap has been a reliable tile cleaner for decades. In addition, many effective cleaners in liquid form or as spray are commercially available.

Brilliantly-glazed tiles should not be cleaned with scouring agents; they are just as sensitive as valuable china or crystal glass. In times, they could lose their brilliance and cater to the accumulation of dust.

All type of tiles can be kept clean most simply by sweeping, vacuuming, or wiping over with a damp cloth. However, in areas where the tiles are subjected to very severe condition of use resulting in to accumulation of grease/ oil etc. cleaning agents which can dissolve the grease and oil should be used.

The choice of cleaning agents will depend on the composition of the dirt. Normal dirt. Normal dirt dissolves in neutral or alkaline agents foam other types however including the frequently occurring lime deposits, only in acid medium.

Most of the commercially available cleaning agents give an alkaline or neutral reaction and can be used on ceramic floor and wall covering with no problem.

It is not advisable to treat floor tiles frequently with viscous polish. This causes an eventual build up of a smudgy film of wax, which attracts.

Frequently, calcium deposits should be removed from the tile in swimming pools or sanitary rooms. Calcium does not dissolve in the conventional household cleaners.

Acidic agents must be used; they are loosely termed as swimming pool cleansers and are available in swimming pool supply shops. When using swimming pool cleansing agent be sure to adhere to the following points:

    • These cleaning agents are usually in concentrated form and must be diluted according to the manufacturer's instructions.
    • They must be washed away thoroughly after the cleaning operation.
   • In order to protect the jointing, the tiles should be moistened beforehand so the jointing can absorb enough water to become       saturated.
    • Sensitive glazed requires a test run.

Special cleaning agents containing hydrofluoric acid are unsuitable for tiles because they attack all silicon material such as ceramics, glass, cement etc.

Special cleaning agents containing hydrofluoric acid are unsuitable for tiles because they attack all silicon material such as ceramics, glass, cement etc. Maintanance of Ceramic Tiles

Ceramic tiles as is known, require very little cleaning effort. In fact, they are the most easily cleaned and maintained flooring material. The glaze on the tiles prevents the ingress of the dirt.

There are three main aspects of cleaning ceramics tiles the initial cleaning, regular cleaning and removal of specific contamination.

Specific contaminants

Contaminants, which are difficult to remove, may have many casuses. Generally it is necessary to ascertain the means by which they can be removed. Before you test the suitability or effectiveness of cleaning or stain of all kind, can fundamentally be eliminated better, the younger they are. If you act immediately, hot water may suffice.

Tile Layering Solution


The procedure for measuring and to cut tiles to fit in to corners and along borders you must use a tile cutter. To make a straight cut in a tile, score the glazed surface then break the tile over a matchstick. Pincers are ideal for small piece at a time.

For curved shapes, mark the pattern on the back of the tile using a template or contour gauge (shaped tracer) and then nibble away with pincer.

To fit a tile around a pipe, cut it in two where the pipe falls and take out corresponding semi -circle from section. The same principles apply to ceramic wall tiles.

When tiling around a W.C., lay down as many whole tiles as possible, but try to avoid having to cut narrow strips to fill the gaps. Mark the curve required for each tile kin turn cut it and lay it in place before moving to the next. Once all the tiles are cut, fix them in place.

To cut border tiles, place a whole tile face down on the last whole tile in the row. Put another tile on the top of it and slide its edge flush to the wall. Draw a line where the edge crosses it and cut along the line. The nearest section will fit into the gap.

When fitting tile around a corner, either make a card template of the shape required and trace it on to a tile, or lay a tile onto the last whole tile in the row nearest the corner. Place a second tile on the top of it and push it up to the wall, drawing a line along its edge across. A. Follow the same pattern on the other side of the corner, making sure not to twist as you move it round the corner. The second line will complete the 'L' shape.

When pipes have to pass through a tile, cut out a template and make a hole of the same diameter in the tile. Cut a slit from the hole to the skirting board edge of the tile and slide it around the pipe. The slit should not be noticeable afterwards. You can tackle other difficult shapes by drawing templates and transferring them onto tiles or by a contour gauge to trace the outline.

Fixing Tiles

Fix the first tiles accurately, since any mistake will affect the subsequent pattern. Place a few dry tiles in position to check the right angle between the horizontal and vertical guide battens then spread tile adhesive onto the wall, covering 1 sq. m. at a time. Comb the adhesive horizontally with a notched spreader for good adhesion.

Lay on the tiles, pressing them down with a twisting motion. You can use matchsticks or suitably thick card to achieve the correct spacing.

Check each square of tiling before continuing and fix the whole tiles first. Allow at least 12 hours for the adhesive to dry before removing the battens and fixing the border row with cut tiles. Never begin tiling in a corner or at the floor level, since the vertical and horizontal lines are rarely like to be true. Instead establish the starting point using a measuring staff marked off with the tile width, including the space in between the tiles. Adjust this until you find the most suitable area to be covered with whole tiles that leaves an even border at the edges. You will have to cut tiles to fill this afterwards.

Allow another 24 hours before grouting, although a fix the grout product, which avoids this delay, is readily available. Mix the grouting powder to creamy consistency or use ready mix grout and rub it in to the joints with a damp sponge. Remove any surplus with a damp cloth before the adhesive dries and polish up the tiles with a soft cloth.


Before laying the tiles, check that the surface to be tiled is properly prepared. Any concrete base must be dry. If there is any evidence of dampness, a damp- proof membrane must be laid and held down before tiling. Small depressions must be filled with cement and sand mortar. Any slight fall away can be made good by using any concrete leveling compound.

Remove any grease and polish present on the surface. The surface should also be free from any dirt or debris. If working on a timber floor, make sure it is well ventilated or rot setting set do not lay tiles straight on to a suspended timber floor. Strengthen it by covering it with sheets of plywood at least 12 mm thick. Prime the plywood before tiling.

Make sure the adhesive you use is suitable for the surface. The most common is cement based powder for flat back tiles lay a 3 mm bed of adhesive, but double this for studded tiles.

Establish the center of the room to be tiled by stretching chalked string from the mid- point of the opposite walls, then pluck the string to leave a mark on the floor. Alternatively draw pencil lines on the diagonals to the center of the room. Make sure the door will open over the tile sand, if necessary trim its bottom edge with a block plane or fit rising butt hinges to allow sufficient clearances. Working from the center outwards, plan to leave an even border around the edge of the room. This may move the center point slightly to ensure a balanced effect.

Spacer Spacers can be used in laying tiles, the purpose of which is to give a uniform laying reduce overall rigidity, attenuating the effects of expansion caused by heat and moisture. They enhance the appearance of the surface and accommodate any minor defect of rectangularly etc.

Different Types of Bed Mortar

Cement sand paste is traditionally used as a bed mortar. It is easily available, easy to prepare and use. The tiles must be soaked in water, the tiles will soak water from the cement sand water and subsequently cracks will develop and the bond of mortar and tile will not be good. Care should be taken to spread the mortar evenly on the bed so that the tile has a firm grip and no hollow space should be left or else unwanted stresses will develop when pressure is put on the tile subsequently developing cracks.

Polymer based mortars can also be used as bed mortar. They have the advantage that they don't require curing and gain strength at a very high rate.

Chemical adhesives can also be used for laying tiles, however they prove to be very costly.


The gaps between the tiles after laying can be filled in by special ready mix grouts available in different colours . After spreading the grout and finishing of smooth , the excess grout should be removed immediately or else it will harden.

Repairing Ceramic Wall Tiles

In case the tiles have not been fixed with proper care and technique, some problems can surface in course of time.

Regrouting Tiles Replacing the grout between old wall tiles is a quick and easy way to brighten them up. Remove the grout with a blade of a worn screwdriver or an old pair of scissors, but be careful not to mark the tile in the process. Apply new grout with a damp sponge, removing any surplus with damp sponge as you move. Wipe the tiles clean with the damp sponge when the grout has almost dried and polish them with a soft cloth.

Refixing Tiles

Before applying new grout, you should refix tiles that have become loose. Chip off the old cement with an old chisel and spread a thin coat of adhesive on the back of the tile. Using a thick adhesive will make the tile stand proud of the others on the wall. If the mortar comes away with the tile, try gluing it back or chip it off. However, if replacement tile are available, it is best to discard the old ones and start a fresh. Clean the wall surface by chipping away mortar and use a mixture of three parts sand to one part of cement to refix the tile. Use just enough mortar to bring the tile level with the adjoining level.

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